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Trying to provide all necessary information about IMMUNITY and IMMUNE SYSTEM

Anemia-a blood disorder

Posted by Mumtaz khan Tuesday, 15 November 2011


            Anemia is a condition in which Oxygen carrying capacity of blood is reduced.It should be noted that it is a sign and not the diagnosis.Many kinds of anemia exist.All of them are characterized by the reduced number of R.B.Cs or decreased amount of hemoglobin in the blood.These conditions lead to fatigue and intolerance to cold both of which are related to lack of oxygen needed for ATP and heat production and to paleness which is due to the low hemoglobin content.
Nutritional Anemia: It arises from inadequate diet usually a diet without enough Iron or a diet without vitamin B12.
Pernicious Anemia: It is the insufficient hematopoeisis that results from inability ot the stomac mucosa to produce untrinsic factor which is needed for the absorption of vitamin B12.
Haemorrhagic Anemia:An execessive loss of R.B.Cs through bleeding is called Haemorrhagic anemia.The common causes are large wounds,stomach ulcer and heavy menstrual bleeding.If the bleeding is extraordinarily heavy the anemia is turned as ''acute''.The excessive blood loss can be fatal and if bleeding is slow and prolonged then the anemia is turned as''chronic''.One of the chief symptoms is fatigue.
Haemolytic Anemia:If the cell membrane of R.B.Cs ruptures prematurely the R.B.Cs remain as ghost and their hemoglobin pores out into plasma.A characteristic sign  of this condition called hemolytic anemia is a distortion in shape of R.B.Cs.It may result from inherent defects such as a defect in the structure of hemoglobin or a defect in the cell membrane of R.B.Cs.The agents that may cause such type of anemia are parasites,toxins and antibodies coming from incompatible blood haemolytic disease of new born i.e.,erythroblastosis feotalis is an excellent example of hemolytic anemia.
Aplastic Anemia:Destruction or exhibition of red bone marrow results in Aplastic Anemia typically the bone marrow is replaced by fatty tissue or fibrous tissue or tumor cells.Medication that inhibit  or prevent the enzymes involved in hematopoeisis or radiation or certain toxins may be the causes for such type of anemia.


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